A lack of local treatment facilities has led the provincial government to transfer addicts to Kabul for treatment.
Many Afghan soldiers and their families have benefited from health services free of charge, while former Taliban fighters say their leaders offer no such support.
The air quality index reading is often above 300, while at night it can top 600. Any reading over 100 is considered unhealthy, according to the World Health Organisation.
Government authorities and religious scholars on both sides of the border are working to counter anti-vaccination propaganda and end the preventable disease.
Current efforts are part of a series of aid and development projects worth $500 million that started in 2007 under the Pakistan Technical Assistance Programme.
The International Committee of the Red Cross is providing life-changing services free of charge to Afghanistan's victims of war, officials and recipients of prosthetic limbs say.
Nineteen cases of the disease have been reported in six provinces since the Taliban forced an end to door-to-door polio vaccination campaigns in May.
Taliban militants closed down some 39 health centres across Zabul Province, depriving more than 65,000 residents of critical health services, provincial officials say.
Vaccination teams from both countries meet at transit points at the Torkham, Kharlachi, Ghulam Khan and Chaman border crossings and share data about child vaccination and registration.
Religious scholars and local residents are demanding that the Taliban stop blocking children's polio vaccinations.