Iran has used various means to create rifts among Afghan journalists, including investing in a select group of reporters who work to promote Iranian interests.
Iran hosts 15-20 local Afghan journalists every year for training courses, a programme that has effectively become a platform for Tehran to increase its influence in Afghanistan, participants say.
The military, ideological and cyber wars being waged against ISIS have greatly impaired the group's media capabilities.
A recent uptick in militant activity on social media has highlighted the importance for Afghanistan of adopting a comprehensive approach to push back against extremists online.
Pakistani media workers and organisations have denounced a deadly pair of bombings in Kabul that killed nine Afghan journalists and wounded six others.
Amrullah Saleh, the former head of Afghanistan's National Directorate of Security, is at the centre of a recent Sputnik report that he calls 'a complete lie'.
News websites such as the Russian outlet Sputnik lack journalistic integrity, routinely publishing inaccurate news and exaggerations, according to observers.
The women working for Zan TV face threats from ISIS, the Taliban and even their families, but they say they will continue to provide a voice for Afghan women and girls.
Defections and battlefield losses have reduced the local ISIS presence from a peak of as many as 3,000 fighters to a maximum of 800, but it still remains a threat.
Female journalists face threats from the Taliban and from their families and workplace discrimination.