The bomber tried to enter the building but was stopped at the security check-point where he detonated his device.
The relationship between the two militant groups has grown increasingly acrimonious of late.
During the first nine months of 2017, attacks on Shia Muslims as they attended mosques or religious ceremonies resulted in 278 civilian casualties.
Senior al-Qaeda leaders' apparent ability to function under Iranian protection supports claims that Tehran and bin Laden had a working relationship.
The group has appealed to women to fight in Syria and Iraq in a last ditch effort that signals its imminent collapse, observers say.
Observers say militant group commanders are waging a 'campaign of murder' on Afghans on behalf of foreigners.
As families tried to reach safer areas, many individuals loaded their personal belongings on donkeys, mules and their own shoulders.
The Taliban have been using advanced weapons available only to the Russian military, according to a security source in western Afghanistan.
Broken glass and dust covered the red carpet, soaked in the blood of the men, women and children who had been praying.
The victims of the Taliban-claimed attack include women, students and police, say officials.